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Preprints, Working Papers, ... Year : 2021

Hierarchical Identifiability in Multi-layer Sparse Matrix Factorization


Many well-known matrices $\mathbf{Z}$ are associated to fast transforms corresponding to factorizations of the form $\mathbf{Z} = \mathbf{X}^{(J)} \ldots \mathbf{X}^{(1)} $, where each factor $ \mathbf{X}^{(\ell)} $ is sparse and possibly structured. This paper investigates essential uniqueness of such factorizations. Our first main contribution is to prove that any $N \times N$ matrix having the so-called butterfly structure admits a unique factorization into $J$ butterfly factors (where $N = 2^J$), and that the factors can be recovered by a hierarchical factorization method. This contrasts with existing approaches which fit the product of the butterfly factors to a given matrix via gradient descent. The proposed method can be applied in particular to retrieve the factorizations of the Hadamard or the Discrete Fourier Transform matrices of size $2^J$. Computing such factorizations costs $\mathcal{O}(N^2)$, which is of the order of dense matrix-vector multiplication, while the obtained factorizations enable fast $\mathcal{O}(N \log N)$ matrix-vector multiplications. This hierarchical identifiability property relies on a simple identifiability condition in the two-layer and fixed-support setting that was recently established. While the butterfly structure corresponds to a fixed prescribed support for each factor, our second contribution is to obtain identifiability results with more general families of allowed sparsity patterns, taking into account permutation ambiguities when they are unavoidable. Typically, we show through the hierarchical paradigm that the butterfly factorization of the Discrete Fourier Transform matrix of size $2^J$ admits a unique sparse factorization into $J$ factors, when enforcing only $2$-sparsity by column and a block-diagonal structure on each factor.
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Dates and versions

hal-03362626 , version 1 (01-10-2021)
hal-03362626 , version 2 (11-11-2021)
hal-03362626 , version 3 (15-02-2022)
hal-03362626 , version 4 (04-04-2022)
hal-03362626 , version 5 (02-08-2022)
hal-03362626 , version 6 (07-10-2022)



Léon Zheng, Elisa Riccietti, Rémi Gribonval. Hierarchical Identifiability in Multi-layer Sparse Matrix Factorization. 2021. ⟨hal-03362626v2⟩
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