Growth directions and stiffness across cell layers determine whether tissues stay smooth or buckle - Inria - Institut national de recherche en sciences et technologies du numérique Access content directly
Preprints, Working Papers, ... Year : 2023

Growth directions and stiffness across cell layers determine whether tissues stay smooth or buckle

Avilash Yadav
Lilan Hong
Patrick Klees
Xi He
Iselle Barrios
Michelle Heeney
Anabella Maria D. Galang
Richard Smith
Arezki Boudaoud
Adrienne H.K. Roeder

Abstract

From smooth to buckled, nature exhibits organs of various shapes and forms. How cellular growth patterns produce smooth organ shapes like those of leaves and sepals remains unclear. Here we show that unidirectional growth and comparable stiffness across both epidermal layers of Arabidopsis sepals are essential for smoothness. We identified a mutant with ectopic ASYMMETRIC LEAVES 2 ( AS2 ) expression that exhibits buckles on the outer epidermis due to conflicting growth directions and unequal epidermal stiffnesses. Aligning growth direction and increasing stiffness restores smoothness. Furthermore, buckling generates outgrowth by influencing auxin efflux transporter protein PIN-FORMED 1 polarity, indicating buckling can initiate organogenesis. Our findings suggest that in addition to molecular cues influencing tissue mechanics, tissue mechanics can also modulate molecular signals, giving rise to well-defined shapes. One-Sentence Summary The keys to unlocking sepal smoothness are unidirectional growth and even stiffness; misplace them, it’s time to buckle up!

Dates and versions

hal-04334525 , version 1 (11-12-2023)

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Avilash Yadav, Lilan Hong, Patrick Klees, Annamaria Kiss, Xi He, et al.. Growth directions and stiffness across cell layers determine whether tissues stay smooth or buckle. 2023. ⟨hal-04334525⟩
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