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Predicting IPv4 services across all ports

Renata Teixeira


Internet-wide scanning is commonly used to understand the topology and security of the Internet. However, IPv4 Internet scans have been limited to scanning only a subset of services---exhaustively scanning all IPv4 services is too costly and no existing bandwidth-saving frameworks are designed to scan IPv4 addresses across all ports. In this work we introduce GPS, a system that efficiently discovers Internet services across all ports. GPS runs a predictive framework that learns from extremely small sample sizes and is highly parallelizable, allowing it to quickly find patterns between services across all 65K ports and a myriad of features. GPS computes service predictions in 13 minutes (four orders of magnitude faster than prior work) and finds 92.5% of services across all ports with 131× less bandwidth, and 204× more precision, compared to exhaustive scanning. GPS is the first work to show that, given at least two responsive IP addresses on a port to train from, predicting the majority of services across all ports is possible and practical.

Dates and versions

hal-03790076 , version 1 (28-09-2022)



Liz Izhikevich, Renata Teixeira, Zakir Durumeric. Predicting IPv4 services across all ports. SIGCOMM '22: ACM SIGCOMM 2022 Conference, Aug 2022, Amsterdam, Netherlands. pp.503-515, ⟨10.1145/3544216.3544249⟩. ⟨hal-03790076⟩


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