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PALMED: Throughput Characterization for Superscalar Architectures


In a super-scalar architecture, the scheduler dynamically assigns micro-operations (µOPs) to execution ports. The port mapping of an architecture describes how an instruction decomposes into µOPs and lists for each µOP the set of ports it can be mapped to. It is used by compilers and performance debugging tools to characterize the performance throughput of a sequence of instructions repeatedly executed as the core component of a loop. This paper introduces a dual equivalent representation: The resource mapping of an architecture is an abstract model where, to be executed, an instruction must use a set of abstract resources, themselves representing combinations of execution ports. For a given architecture, finding a port mapping is an important but difficult problem. Building a resource mapping is a more tractable problem and provides a simpler and equivalent model. This paper describes Palmed, a tool that automatically builds a resource mapping for pipelined, super-scalar, out-of-order CPU architectures. Palmed does not require hardware performance counters, and relies solely on runtime measurements. We evaluate the pertinence of our dual representation for throughput modeling by extracting a representative set of basic-blocks from the compiled binaries of the SPEC CPU 2017 benchmarks. We compared the throughput predicted by existing machine models to that produced by Palmed, and found comparable accuracy to state-of-the art tools, achieving sub-10 % mean square error rate on this workload on Intel's Skylake microarchitecture.
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Dates and versions

hal-03531740 , version 1 (18-01-2022)


  • HAL Id : hal-03531740 , version 1


Nicolas Derumigny, Théophile Bastian, Fabian Gruber, Guillaume Iooss, Christophe Guillon, et al.. PALMED: Throughput Characterization for Superscalar Architectures. CGO 2022 - International Symposium on Code Generation and Optimization, Apr 2022, Seoul, South Korea. pp.1-12. ⟨hal-03531740⟩
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