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Journal Articles Pattern Recognition Letters Year : 2019

A Weakly Supervised Learning Technique for Classifying Facial Expressions


The universal hypothesis suggests that the six basic emotions-anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise-are being expressed by similar facial expressions by all humans. While existing datasets support the universal hypothesis and comprise of images and videos with discrete disjoint labels of profound emotions, real-life data contains jointly occurring emotions and expressions of different intensities. Models, which are trained using categorical one-hot vectors often over-fit and fail to recognize low or moderate expression intensities. Motivated by the above, as well as by the lack of sufficient annotated data, we here propose a weakly supervised learning technique for expression classification, which leverages the information of unannotated data. Crucial in our approach is that we first train a convolutional neural network (CNN) with label smoothing in a supervised manner and proceed to tune the CNN-weights with both labelled and unlabelled data simultaneously. Experiments on four datasets demonstrate large performance gains in cross-database performance, as well as show that the proposed method achieves to learn different expression intensities, even when trained with categorical samples.
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hal-02381439 , version 1 (26-11-2019)



S L Happy, Antitza Dantcheva, Francois F Bremond. A Weakly Supervised Learning Technique for Classifying Facial Expressions. Pattern Recognition Letters, 2019, ⟨10.1016/j.patrec.2019.08.025⟩. ⟨hal-02381439⟩
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