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Journal Articles JAMA Network Open Year : 2021

Association of Immunosuppression and Viral Load With Subcortical Brain Volume in an International Sample of People Living With HIV

Vikash Gupta
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Abstract

IMPORTANCE Despite more widely accessible combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-1 infection remains a global public health challenge. Even in treated patients with chronic HIV infection, neurocognitive impairment often persists, affecting quality of life. Identifying the neuroanatomical pathways associated with infection in vivo may delineate the neuropathologic processes underlying these deficits. However, published neuroimaging findings from relatively small, heterogeneous cohorts are inconsistent, limiting the generalizability of the conclusions drawnto date.OBJECTIVE To examine structural brain associations with the most commonly collected clinicalassessments of HIV burden (CD4+T-cell count and viral load), which are generalizable acrossdemographically and clinically diverse HIV-infected individuals worldwide.DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This cross-sectional study established the HIV WorkingGroup within the Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics Through Meta Analysis (ENIGMA) consortiumto pool and harmonize data from existing HIV neuroimaging studies. In total, data from 1295HIV-positive adults were contributed from 13 studies across Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and NorthAmerica. Regional and whole brain segmentations were extracted from data sets as contributingstudies joined the consortium on a rolling basis from November 1, 2014, to December 31, 2019.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Volume estimates for 8 subcortical brain regions wereextracted from T1-weighted magnetic resonance images to identify associations with blood plasmamarkers of current immunosuppression (CD4+T-cell counts) or detectable plasma viral load (dVL) inHIV-positive participants. Post hoc sensitivity analyses stratified data by cART status.RESULTS After quality assurance, data from 1203 HIV-positive individuals (mean [SD] age, 45.7 [11.5]years; 880 [73.2%] male; 897 [74.6%] taking cART) remained. Lower current CD4+cell counts wereassociated with smaller hippocampal (mean [SE] β = 16.66 [4.72] mm3per 100 cells/mm3;P< .001)and thalamic (mean [SE] β = 32.24 [8.96] mm3per 100 cells/mm3;P< .001) volumes and largerventricles (mean [SE] β = −391.50 [122.58] mm3per 100 cells/mm3;P= .001); in participants nottaking cART, however, lowercurrent CD4+cell counts were associated with smaller putamen volumes(mean [SE] β = 57.34 [18.78] mm3per 100 cells/mm3;P= .003). A dVL was associated with smallerhippocampal volumes (d= −0.17;P= .005); in participants taking cART, dVL was also associated withsmaller amygdala volumes (d= −0.23;P= .004)
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hal-03241929 , version 1 (29-05-2021)

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Talia M Nir, Jean-Paul Fouche, Jintanat Ananworanich, Beau M Ances, Jasmina Boban, et al.. Association of Immunosuppression and Viral Load With Subcortical Brain Volume in an International Sample of People Living With HIV. JAMA Network Open, 2021, 4 (1), pp.e2031190. ⟨10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.31190⟩. ⟨hal-03241929⟩
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